A humanlike or apelike Entity of North America
possessing some of the char act er ist ics of
Giant Hominids or North American Apes.
Etymology: Coined by Jer ome Clar k as a
cat chall t erm for humanoids r epor t ed in t he
midwest ern and east ern Unit ed St at es and
Variant names: Big hairy monst er (BHM),
Billiwack monst er (in sout her n Califor nia),
Booger, Buenafoot (in sout hern California),
Cannibal Giant, Dwayyo, East ern bigfoot ,
Fluor escent Fr eddie, Goatman, Goonyak (in
Vermont ), Gr assman (in Ohio), Lake Worth
Monster, Manbeast , Manimal, Momo, Old
slipper yskin (in Vermont ), Old yellow t op (in
Ont ar io), Ole woolly, Or ange eyes (in Ohio),
Pr ecambr ian Shield man, Taku he
(Dakot a/Siouan, “what ’s t hat ?”), Wejuk (in
Vermont ), Wood devil, Wookie, Woolly
booger , Yeahoh (in Kent ucky).
Physical description: Not as uniform as t he
Bigfoot of t he Pacific Nor t hwest , t hough always
cover ed wit h hair and walking on t wo legs
(hence it s name). It ’s difficult t o gener alize t r ait s
fr om r epor t s t hat might have mult iple causes,
but some of t he following feat ur es ar e usually
pr esent . Height , 4–9 feet , t hough sizes up t o 12
feet ar e ment ioned. Hair or fur is r eddish-br own
t o black, oft en descr ibed as 6–8 inches long.
Oft en dist inct ly lacking in facial feat ur es, but a
cat like face is occasionally r epor t ed. Red, orange, yellow, or gr een glowing eyes. Flat , br oad
nose. Point ed ear s. Wer ewolflike fangs. Mane.
Long ar ms. Hands ar e somet imes clawed. Long
Behavior: Pr imar ily noct urnal. Usually has an
awkwar d, bipedal gait but somet imes r uns on all
four s. Said t o be able t o swim. Occasionally seen
wit h young. Repor t ed calls ar e moans, grunt s,
howls, high-pit ched shr ieks. St r ong, put r id odor
like decaying flesh or r ot t en eggs. These cr ea -
t ures ar e somet imes ascr ibed such par anormal
feat ur es as invulner abilit y, t r anspar ency, insubst
ant ialit y, invisibilit y, and t he abilit y t o disappear
inst ant aneously. Appear s t o show int er est
in and have no fear of human dwellings. Dislikes
car s and dogs, which oft en r eact wit h gr eat
fr ight . Somet imes associat ed wit h unident ified
flying object (UFO) sight ings.
Tracks: Anywher e fr om two- t o six-t oed.
Three-t oed ar e perhaps commonest and have
been r epor t ed fr om t he Sout h, t he Midwest ,
Pennsylvania, Mar yland, and sout hern Califor -
nia. Lengt h, up t o 14 inches. St r ide, up t o 5
feet . Hair samples have been found.
All pr imat es have five t oes. Any Hair y biped
t hat leaves clear imprint s showing anyt hing less
t han five t oes const it ut es an ext reme evolut ionar
y anomaly. Pent adact yly (having five finger s
or t oes) is a common and pr imit ive feat ur e of
rept iles and mammals. However , it is not an essent
ial r equir ement , and many animals have
modified t he plan: fr ogs only have four digit s,
cows have t wo, hor ses have dr opped all but one,
and snakes have got t en rid of legs alt oget her.
Most bir ds get by walking on only four (t hr ee in
fr ont and one behind), while t he Ost r ich
(Struthio camelus) only has two. If t hr ee-t oed,
humanlike bipeds r eally exist as flesh-and-blood
creat ures and are not paranormal apparit ions, it
would be most int er est ing t o find out mor e
about their foot structure. Perhaps three toes is
better than five when you’ve chosen a swamp or
wetland as your habitat.
Habitat: Secluded areas, often forested wetlands
or mountainous regions.
Distribution: Nearly every U.S. state and
Canadian province. Most sightings represent
only transient individuals.
A partial list of places where Hairy bipeds
have been reported follows:
Alabama—Choccolocco Valley, Town
Arkansas—Center Ridge, Greene County,
Jonesboro, Leachville, Poinsett County, St.
Francis County, South Crossett, Springdale.
California—Antelope Valley, Borrego Sink,
Lytle Creek, Pearblossom, San Gorgonio
Mountains, Santa Paula.
Colorado—Green Mountain Falls.
Connecticut—Bristol, Crystal Lake Reservoir,
Illinois—Big Muddy River, Cairo, Centerville,
Chittyville, Creve Coeur, East Peoria, Effingham,
Farmer City, Kickapoo Creek, Murphysboro.
Indiana—Attica, French Lick, Galveston,
Hoosier National Forest, Knox County, Pike
County, Richmond, Rising Sun, Roachdale,
Kentucky—Albany, Leslie County, Trimble
Labrador, Canada—Goose Bay.
Louisiana—Cotton Island, Honey Island
Manitoba, Canada—Gypsumville, Steinbach,
Whiteshell Provincial Park.
Maryland—Calvert County, Churchville,
Dickerson, Harford County, Kingsville, Prince
George’s County, Sykesville.
Massachusetts—Bridgewater, Raynham Center.
Michigan—Byron, Charlotte, Dowagiac
Swamp, Fenton, Houghton Lake State Forest,
Lake City, Marshall, Mason, Mio, Monroe, Oscoda
County, Port Huron, Saginaw, Shiawassee
River, Sister Lakes, Tuscola County, Yale.
Minnesota—northern part of state.
Missouri—Louisiana, Pacific, Troy.
Nebraska—south of Lincoln.
Nevada—Nevada Test Site.
New Hampshire—Hollis, Salisbury.
New Jersey—Great Bear Swamp, High Point,
New York—Burlington County, Ellisburg,
Morristown, Mount Misery, Richmondtown,
Sherman, Watertown, Whitehall.
Newfoundland, Canada—Trinity Bay.
North Carolina—Dismal Swamp, Tabor
Ohio—Alliance, Brookside Park, Carlisle,
Coshocton County, Defiance, Eaton, Huron,
Kenmore, Kimbolton, Mansfield, Minerva,
Monroeville, Muskingum County, Newcomerstown,
Point Isabel, Rome.
Oklahoma—Canton, Kiamichi Mountains,
Mountain Fork River, Nowata, Noxie, Tahlequah,
Ontario, Canada—Cobalt, Webequie, Weenusk
Oregon—Conser Lake, Roseburg.
Pennsylvania—Allegheny County, Allison,
Beaver County, Bradford County, Buffalo
Mills, Chester County, Chestnut Ridge, Derry
Township, East Pennsboro Township, Edinboro,
Fayette County, Gray Station, Indiana
County, Jeannette, Lancaster, Latrobe, Lock
Haven, Somerset County, Uniontown, Westmoreland
Saskatchewan, Canada—Grand Rapids.
South Dakota—Standing Rock Indian Reservation.
Tennessee—Charlotte, Flintville, Lascassas,
Knox County, Monteagle Mountain.
Texas—Bells, Caddo, Denton, Haskell,
Lamar County, Lake Worth, Newton County,
Paris, Peerless, Polk County.
Vermont—Chittenden, Hartland, Rutland
Virginia—Colonial Beach, Middletown.
West Virginia—Cacapon Bridge, Davis,
Hickory Flats, Marlinton, Parsons.
Wisconsin—Benton, Cashton, Deltox
Swamp, Grafton, Granton, Jefferson, Medford.
Significant sightings: Riley W. Smith saw a
naked hairy man, about 6 feet tall, while picking
berries near Winsted, Connecticut, on August
17, 1895. The incident was the first of about
twenty that allegedly took place in western Connecticut
and the Catskill Mountains of New
York over the next few weeks. Widely and possibly
erroneously regarded as a hoax by newspaperman
Louis T. Stone, the original incident
may have involved a bear.
An apelike, bipedal creature with a yellow
head and mane was seen by workers near the Violet
Mine east of Cobalt, Ontario, in September
1906. In 1923, two prospectors saw a similar yellow-
headed, black-haired animal eating blueberries;
they thought it was a bear until they threw
a rock at it, prompting it to get up and walk
away on two legs. Later sightings earned it the
nickname “Old yellow top.” The last sighting
was in August 1970 when Aimée Latreille, the
driver of a bus carrying twenty-seven miners, was
forced to swerve after he saw an apelike creature
with a light mane cross the road; the bus nearly
had a fatal crash down a nearby rock cut.
In August 1963, Harlan E. Ford and a friend
encountered a huge humanoid in Honey Island
Swamp near Slidell, Louisiana. It glared menacingly
at them and ran away on two legs.
In May 1964, near Sister Lakes, Michigan,
Gordon Brown and his brother saw a hairy man
about 9 feet tall who made a whimpering sound.
Shortly afterward, three teenagers saw a 7-foot
creature with a black face running through the
underbrush in Silver Creek Township. Many
other witnesses came forth and were named in
extensive newspaper coverage.
A green, 10-foot-tall monster with glowing
red eyes was seen in March 1965 by teenagers in
the woods south of French Lick, Indiana. They
called it “Fluorescent Freddie.”
In 1965, two teenagers were chased from
their campfire by a 9- to 10-foot hairy creature
on the north slope of the San Gorgonio Mountains,
On August 13, 1965, Christine Van Acker
and her mother were driving near Monroe,
Michigan, when a hairy, 7-foot giant stepped in
front of their car. Van Acker hit the brakes,
stalling the car, and the creature reached
through the open window and grabbed the top
of her head. The women’s screams and horn
honking apparently made it retreat.
On May 19, 1969, George Kaiser saw a mansized
creature covered in black fur on his farm
near Rising Sun, Indiana. It made a strange
grunting sound, jumped over a ditch, and
swiftly ran down the road. Later, footprints with
three small toes and a big toe were found. A
greenish-white UFO was seen by a neighbor the
Odd, froglike noises woke up teenagers
Wayne Hall and Dave Chapman early on July
24, 1972, at the latter’s home near Crystal Lake
Reservoir in northwestern Connecticut. Looking
outside, they saw an 8-foot hairy creature. It
crossed a road and moved around in the shadows
near a horse barn. After forty-five minutes,
it crossed the road again and disappeared in the
woods by the lake.
On the night of April 22, 1973, William
Roemermann, Brian Goldojarb, and Richard
Engels saw a Bigfoot-like creature near the
Sycamore Flats campground in Big Rock
Canyon, Los Angeles County, California. It
chased their truck for about twenty seconds, its
long arms swinging in front of its chest. On returning,
they found many huge, three-toed
In May and June 1973, an apelike creature
terrorized the area around Sykesville in Carroll
County, Maryland. Five-toed, 13-inch footprints
were found, separated by a stride of 6 feet.
On June 25, 1973, Randy Needham and
Judy Johnson were parked near a boat ramp on
the Big Muddy River near Murphysboro, Illinois,
when they heard a piercing cry that came
from the nearby woods. They looked up and
saw the sound came from a huge shape lumbering
toward them. The creature was about 7 feet
tall and covered with a matted, whitish hair.
Others saw and heard the same creature over the
next two weeks, and it reappeared in the summers
of 1974, 1975, 1988, and 1989.
At 4:30 a.m . on September 2, 1973, Chester
Yothers woke up and saw a Bigfoot-like creature
only 5 feet away outside his trailer near
Whitney, Pennsylvania, apparently looking at
the house next door. He woke his wife and
called the police, who arrived shortly afterward.
The monster was gone, but they found wet footprints
on the concrete and in the flower bed.
Dennis Smith and Jimmy Slate heard pounding
and shrieking noises in the woods next to
Overlook Drive, near Watertown, New York, in
the early morning of August 10, 1976. As the
sun was rising, they saw an erect, black hominid
walking down the road about two city blocks
away. When Smith yelled, the creature turned
around and ran in the opposite direction. Later,
two 15-inch-long tracks, trampled grass, and
some long hairs were found.
On May 18, 1977, two thirteen-year-old
boys were walking their dog near the historic
Roberts Covered Bridge south of Eaton, Ohio,
when the dog got frightened and they smelled a
rotten-meat odor. Turning around, they saw a
9-foot, apelike creature with dirty brown hair,
white eyes, and long arms; it chased them toward
the road. Both boys were terrified for
weeks after the incident. Two 14-inch, humanlike
prints were found near Seven Mile Creek on
a nearby farm.
Some twenty-eight sightings of Bigfoot-like
creatures 6–9 feet tall were reported in wooded
areas around Little Eagle in the Standing Rock
Reservation in South Dakota from September
to November 1977. Numerous large footprints
were found, and high-pitched shrieks were
heard repeatedly. Cecelia Thunder Shield said
the being was tall with gray, shining hair and a
In January 1980, an employee of Reynolds
Electrical and Engineering Company saw a 6- to
7-foot hairy creature while driving along a highway
at the northern end of the Nevada Test
Site. It disappeared in the sagebrush.
James Guyette saw a huge hairy humanoid
walking and swinging its arms along an interstate
highway near Hartland Dam, Vermont, in
April 1984. It moved down the embankment
and headed west.
A woodsman of Gray Station, Pennsylvania,
was walking at the forest edge at dusk on December
13, 1986, when something threw a large
piece of wood at him. He looked up and saw a
hairy creature, standing 8–9 feet tall with wide
shoulders and long arms, blocking the path.
After a moment, it turned, stooped, and ran
into the woods.
Gary Lee Hayes was hunting near a tract of the
Houghton Lake State Forest, Michigan, on November
25, 1990, when he saw a tall, upright
creature moving on the crest of a nearby hill. It
had black hair all over its body and was 7 feet tall.
The creature walked down to a large beaver dam,
squatted down, stood up, then went back uphill.
Robert Toal found huge, human-shaped
tracks in the snow on his property in Kingsville,
Maryland, on the night of February 4–5, 1995.
Field investigators from the Baltimore-area
Enigma Project arrived a few days later and photographed
the tracks, which were 20 inches
long, 11 inches wide, but only 1 inch deep in
the powdery snow. The tracks had an average
stride of 4 feet 10 inches in a straight line and
apparently passed through a 4-foot-high wire
fence. Since even humans weighing less than
200 pounds made deeper impressions in the
snow, the Enigma group thought these were the
full-body impressions of a much lighter animal,
possibly a jumping rabbit.
Early in the morning of March 28, 2000,
James Hughes was driving his newspaper route
near Grafton, Wisconsin, when he saw an 8-
foot hairy humanoid standing by the side of the
road. The creature was carrying something that
looked like a dead goat.
Human tracks 14 inches long and 5 inches
wide were found in early June 2001 on the
Weenusk Indian Reservation at the mouth of
the Winisk River on Hudson Bay, Ontario. The
stride measured 6 feet.
Present status: Distinctions between North
Am erican Ap es, Devil Monkeys, Hairy
bipeds, and Bigfoo tare nebulous and possibly
arbitrary. In general, North Am erican Ap es
are tailless and primarily quadrupedal, and they
resemble chimpanzees; Devil Monkeys are
tailed and resemble baboons; Hairy bipeds cover
a wide range of descriptions, from apes to Wildmen
and even paranormal Entities; Bigfoo tis
a robust, tall hominid with a range that seems
restricted to the Pacific Northwest.
(1) Many hoaxes, such as pranksters wearing
masks or suits. The Selbyville, Delaware,
swamp monster of 1964 was admittedly a
hoax perpetrated by a man in a monster
(2) Mentally unstable or homeless humans
living in the woods. This explanation may
have been especially true for nineteenthcentury
(3) Misidentified American black bears
(4) Monkeys or apes escaped from zoos or
(5) Entities associated with UFOs,
suggested by Stan Gordon and Don
(6) Occurrences of Bigfoot outside its
traditional range in the Pacific Northwest.
The only comparative analysis of Hairy
biped data in eastern North America has
been done by Craig Heinselman, who
looked at 654 reports from fifteen eastern
and northeastern states between 1838 and
2001 and found few differences in height or
other narrowly selected physical
characteristics from the Pacific Northwest
Bigfoo t. He arrived at a tentative
population estimate of 210–420 adult
individuals for all fifteen states.