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The Kellas cat is a small black feline found in Scotland. Once thought to be a mythological wild cat, with its few sightings dismissed as hoaxes, a specimen was shot and killed in 1984 by a gamekeeper named Ronnie Douglas and found to be a hybrid between wild and domestic sub-species of Felis silvestris. It is not a formal breed of cat, but a landrace of felid hybrids. The specimen was named by cryptozoologist Karl Shuker after the village of Kellas, Moray, where it was first found. Shuker suggested that the cat sìth of Celtic legend is based on folk memory of Kellas cats.

The Kellas cat is described as being over 65 cm (25 inches) long, with powerful and long hind legs and a tail that can grow to be around 30 cm (12 inches) long. A specimen is kept in a museum in Elgin.

[For a history of Kellas cats, discovery of type specimens, attempted breeding, etc. see Kellas cat History section, later ]

Through snaring and shooting by local gamekeepers in the early 1980s, a series of specimens of the Kellas cats were amassed, largely by amateur naturalist and investigator of the big-cat phenomenon, Di Francis. Her hope initially, on hearing of the first specimens being shot, was that the Kellas cats represented cubs/young of the large black felids being sighted throughout Britain at the time. On examination of genitalia, however, clearly the specimen cats were adult, and as such in no way connected to the large black cats killing livestock throughout Britain.

Morphology

The Kellas cat specimens are certainly very striking in their appearance, being long-legged and gracile in build. Overall the colour is black, with prominent white-coloured guard hairs over the flanks (often described as 'flecked' with white hairs.)
A white area of fur is typically seen at the base of the throat, or on the chest region. Tail variable, sometimes short and stocky, yet in others long and sleek.

[The cats appeared to exhibit behaviour quite unlike that of the Scottish wild cats. The cats have been repeatedly described as hunting in pairs, unlike the solitary nature attributed to wild cats, and are said to be largely cursorial (built for running), rarely being arboreal (tree climbing tendencies - a trait often associated with Scottish wildcats, Felis sylvestris grampia. - 'sylvestris' referring to forest/wood dwelling)]

Whilst at a glance most of the Kellas cats appeared alike, many differences between individuals were noticed with the collection of the initial specimens in the 1980s. Differences in overall size, length of limbs, tail length, number and distribution of white guard hairs, size and distribution of white chest patches, etc led many researchers (professional and amateur alike) to speculate as to the origins of the Kellas cats. Whilst initially speculation pointed towards the cats being a new species (Francis and others), many speculated that hybrids between Scottish wild cats and feral, domestic cats were to blame for the phenomenon, (zoologist Karl Shuker, and others.)
A blood sample taken from a freshly killed specimen in 1985 proved too contaminated for chromosomal/DNA analysis, but a blood sample from a live-captured cat in the Spring of 1986 proved that individual cat to be unequivocally a wildcat-domestic cat hybrid (See Kellas cat History section, later)

Note: as a consequence of high numbers of feral cats in Morayshire, hybridisation of domestic cats with wildcats is potentially a common occurrence. The true Scottish wildcat (F.sylvestris grampia) is not as true a species as is commonly believed. Studies suggest that most modern cats described as 'pure wildcats' unfortunately exhibit genetic characteristics pointing to a hybrid ancestry. Many argue that the type-specimen, shot at Invermorriston, Highlands, against which other purported Scottish wildcats are compared, may indeed not be a purebred Scottish wildcat after all.

Analysis

The Kellas cat specimens collected largely by Di Francis were subjected to a thorough examination by Dr Andrew Kitchener of the Royal Scottish Museum, in Edinburgh.

Based on the evidence from eight collected specimens, he concluded that seven of the cats showed traits common to both Scottish wildcats and domestic cats. These cats were described as introgressive hybrids, representing animals with varying degrees of Scottish wildcat and domestic cat ancestry, which in turn accounted for the differing external characteristics exhibited by the type specimens.

The final specimen exhibited external characteristics AND internal characteristics (largely gut length, skull morphology, etc) which led Kitchener to believe it represented the first melanistic Scottish wildcat ever documented. Unfortunately, some researchers have raised doubts as to this conclusion, as black (melanistic) wildcats have never been recorded in Europe, although melanism is a common coat colour mutation in other cat species.

From Kitchener's findings, some researchers have suggested that the term ТKellas catУ should be reserved solely for use in describing pure melanistic Scottish wildcats.

1) January 1983. Kellas, Morayshire.Edit

Adult pair of Kellas cats spied beside the River Lossie, the male of the pair shot and killed. Having killed several such cats in the past, this male, a fine specimen, was taken to local taxidermist to be stuffed. (Tomas Christie specimen)
Male 42 inches from nose to tail. Taxiderm specimen came into possession of Di Francis, the specimen ultimately ending up at Elgin Museum.
Francis took the specimen to Frank Turk, retired zoologist, Professor Charles Thomas, and to Daphne Hills and her team at British Museum (Natural History), London for their professional opinions of the specimen. Consensus was the specimen represented a feral domestic x Scottish wildcat hybrid.

2) June 1984. Revack Lodge, near Grantown on Spey.

Local gamekeeper, Ronald Douglas caught second known Kellas cat in a fox-snare on the estate. Adult male cat, 43 inches from nose to tail. Viewed by Forres vet, John Robertson, and the director of Highland Wildlife Park, Edward Orbell.
Douglas sent the carcase to Perth based taxidermist, Ronnie Buchan. The specimen allegedly went missing. (Di Francis later retrieved the remnants of it's pelt some years later.)

3) April 1985. Advie, South of Charlestown of Aberlour.

Local gamekeeper bagged another adult male Kellas cat, on the Aberlour road, near hamlet of Advie. Carcase sent to Di Francis, who later sent specimen for appraisal by Daphne Hills at the British Museum (Natural History). Slight cryptic striping of tail evident in this specimen. Report stated probable wildcat x domestic cat hybrid, but one more allied to a wildcat origin.

4) 14th October 1985. Dallas, near Kellas, Morayshire.

Local gamekeeper shot a juvenile male cat, stalking pheasants at Dallas. Within 2 hours of the animals demise, a blood sample was taken by Forres vet, John Robertson, which was sent to Aberdeen University laboratories for chromosomal analysis. The sample proved useless, as stated on arrival as being either delayed (Francis) or contaminated (Shuker).

5) 1986. Darnaway Estates, Morayshire

A pair of Kellas cats shot. Male estimated at 11 months old, lean, white primary guard hairs prominent. Female of a much more stockier, shorter build.
Specimens sent to Di Francis for her growing collection, examined by scientific team under Professor Robert Barry (London University College). MeanwhileЙ..

6) Spring 1986.

BBC film crew working for TV programme Tomorrow's world set traps near Kellas, and achieved success at catching the first live specimen of the 'Kellas cat'.
(Screened in documentary - 'On the Trail of the Big Cat' 22 nd May1986)
The specimen was female, and was taken to the Highland Wildlife Park at Kincraig. Blood sample sent for chromosomal analysis by Dr Fox of Aberdeen University's Zoology Dept. Results from this specimen proved, unequivocally, to be from a wildcat x domestic hybrid.

7) 28th February 1988. Redcastle, Ross-shire.

Adult male Kellas cat trapped alive by Mr Tony Sill. Trapped after it had attacked his Aylesbury ducks repeatedly. Again this specimen sent to Kincraig Wildlife Park.

8) 1986. Kellas, Morayshire.

Colin Barclay, Tomas Christie's gamekeeper, shot a female Kellas cat at Kellas. From the wound on her side, it was discovered she was pregnant, the head of a striped unborn kitten protruding from the flank wound of the black Kellas mother.

9) 1991 Autumn.

Big cat researcher Di Francis got the opportunity to keep the Ross-shire male, and Tomorrow's world female Kellas cats. Pens to accommodate the couple were made in a hurry. Cats adopted the names Fred and Freda, (see My Highland Kellas Cats, by Di Francis)

10) Colin Barclay later captured a live female Kellas cat, caught in a snare by its' forepaw. The limb needed amputating due to the severity of the damage, the three-legged cat, named Kelly, joined the 2 cats in Di Francis' possession.

11) Fred and Freda succeeded in producing a litter of kittens, cryptic striping being very evident. Over a series of weeks, successive kittens died, cause unknown. Speculated that the cause of death may have been lethal genes associated with inbreeding, or indeed associated with a rickets type condition, possibly brought on by improper diet.

12) 1994. Burgie lodge, between Elgin and Forres, Morayshire.

Adult male Kellas cat, shot on the estate. Tail size would suggest ancestry more domestic cat than wildcat.

13) 2001. Fife.

Rumours abound about Kellas' type cats seen on numerous occasions in the vicinity of several farms in the Fife areas.

14) October 2002.

Kellas cat, adult, killed in the lowland areas of Aberdeenshire. The specimen was made into a taxidermy specimen, now housed in the foyer of the Aberdeen University's Zoology Dept. building.

The Cait SithEdit

In Scottish mythology there exists a feline form called the Cait Sith or 'Fairy Cat'. It is described in folklore as being a large black cat, 'sparked'/flecked with white. The similarity of the description with the primary guard hairs sported by most Kellas cat specimens has led many to believe that the folklore associated with the Cait Sith has, at it's roots, a basis in early sightings and descriptions of Kellas cats throughout mainland Scotland.

The Rabbit-Headed CatEdit

In the midst of conducting her research into the Kellas cats, Di Francis came across a feline form, which convinced her of the possibility of another unknown species of cat, which she christened the rabbit-headed cat.

In 1988, a local gamekeeper shot a cat in the Dufftown area of Morayshire, and this specimen was sent to Di Francis, via Tomas Christie's gamekeeper, Mr Colin Barclay.

In outward appearance the cat did not look like the normal Kellas cat specimens. Whilst of a large size, it lacked the white primary guard hairs and chest patch. The specimen was an adult male, with adult sized testes. The specimen had a pronounced 'roman-nose', and sported large upper canine teeth.

Francis likened the head of the cat to a rabbit, such that the name stuck. Francis was convinced at the time that the specimen represented another previously unknown species of cat, native to Scotland. She was convinced other specimens would turn up.

In 1993, gamekeeper Jimmy McVeigh spotted a large cat swimming after wildfowl in an area near to East Kilbride. He sent his dogs into the water to 'flush-out' the cat, which on reaching the shore, and demonstrating such ferocity when cornered, was shot by McVeigh. The specimen was an adult female, with much the same 'roman-nose' sported by the Dufftown specimen. 

Speculation exists whether the Revack lodge Kellas cat killed in June 1984 was actually a 'rabbit-headed' cat, the only remains of the cadaver being a taxidermy pelt.
Also in 1938, The Scottish Field magazine included an article about a black feral kitten found in Elgin, which could not be tamed as it grew into adulthood. A photograph of the adult cat revealed a profile similar to that of the rabbit-headed cat.

Analysis

Scottish Big Cat Trust (SBCT) members Dr John Murray and Mick Orsi MRCVS took the skull of the East Kilbride specimen to the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh. There, Dr Andrew Kitchener, famed for his analysis of the Kellas cat specimens of the 1980s, conducted similar tests on the rabbit-headed cat skull.

Kitchener's findings suggested the rabbit-headed cat skull exhibited no real anatomical differences between it and specimens of Scottish wildcats, and domestic cats and their hybrids.

Examination of post-mortem photographs of the Dufftown skull and comparison of domestic cat skulls in the authorХs collections shows an occasional anatomical difference. The differences Francis described once as being unique to the Dufftown individual exist either 1) in all cat species, or 2) in all cats - within the boundaries of normal genetic variation, eg relative skull sizes, etc.

Satunin's CatEdit

In a report of the Zoological Society, London Volume II, 1904, the eminent Russian zoologist Mr C. Satunin described the existence of a large black wildcat type existing in the Transcaucasian areas. The features described re its morphology, are those attributed to Kellas cats ie. black cats with white primary guard hairs. One point to note is that the specimens collected had long thin tails. In terms of length, they were longer than most domestic cats, which in turn are longer than most wildcats and Kellas cats. Mr Satunin called the cat Felis daemon on the assumption he had discovered a new species of small cat. Many zoologists disagreed with his ideas, and indeed F. daemon was demoted to a subspecies of the European wildcat in 1973, currently described as F.sylvestris caucasia.

King Kellas CatsEdit

Tom Anderson, a correspondent for Animals and Men wrote to Jonathan Downes of the Centre for Fortean Zoology, regards a sighting of an alleged huge Kellas cat type specimen. The specimen was sighted around Strathdon, Aberdeenshire, and represented a Kellas cat 5 feet (60 inches) from nose to tail, seen at close distance. Maximum length for Kellas male specimens, 43 inches. Witnesses, Mr and Mrs Jeffrey, were adamant it was of Kellas cat type. Other similar cats have been seen nr. Slaines Castle, North of Aberdeen. Witnesses dubbed the beast a King Kellas.

Where can I see mounted specimens of Kellas Cats?

1) Elgin Museum, Elgin, Morayshire

2) Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh

3) Aberdeen University, Zoology Dept. foyer, Aberdeen

Aron Bowers BVSc MRCVS

Bibliography/Sources

Mystery cats of the World (from blue tigers to Exmoor beasts) by Karl P.N. Shuker, 1989, Robert Hale, London.

Beast of Exmoor ( & other mystery predators of Britain) by Di Francis, 1993 Jonathan Cape Publishing

My Highland Kellas Cats (the discovery and origins of a ferocious new black wildcat) By Di Francis, 1993 Jonathan Cape Publishing

Natural History of Wildcats by Andrew Kitchener 1991, Christopher Helm Publishing.

Scottish Wildcat Newsletter, dated 14th March 2001

Aberdeen Press and Journal, dated 28th November 2002

'Smaller Mystery Animals of the West Country' by Jonathan Downes, 1996 CFZ Publications.

'Animals and Men' by Jonathan Downes, CFZ Publications.

Personal comparisons, anatomical detailing of Dufftown cat skull and domestic cats skulls.

Personal communications between myself and fellow members of Scottish Big Cat Trust, in reference to East Kilbride specimen of so called 'Rabbit headed cats'.

What exactly are the so called alien big cats that are constantly mentioned in the press? The police have received over a thousand reports of big cat sightings in Scotland. Some 'big cat' sightings are probably deliberate hoaxes, by people who are seeking publicity. On the other hand, many more sightings undoubtedly remain un-reported as people are afraid of being ridiculed.

Some of the sightings are probably genuine cases of mistaken identity. A percentage of sightings may be large dogs - for a fraction of a second, I recently mistook a large black undocked mongrel for a 'panther', and it was only a few feet away in broad daylight.

Other sightings may be an error of scale. At a distance, a domestic or feral cat could be assumed to be much bigger than it is when there is no familiar object nearby to compare its size to.

Then there are the genuine big cat sightings. There have certainly been cats on the prowl in Scotland. Three lynx were reported to be have been shot or trapped near Inverness as far back as 1926, although it may have been a journalistic hoax. Felicity the puma was captured near Inverness and a Leopard Cat (originally from Edinburgh Zoo) was killed a few years ago in the Borders. The amount of evidence amassed certainly suggests that there are a few others prowling around out there.

Other sightings may be examples of the famous 'Kellas' Cat - named after the village near Forres where they were discovered. These cats are probably an introgressive hybrid between Feral domestic cats and Felis silvestris grampia the Scottish subspecies of the European Wildcat. Others believe that Kellas Cats are actually an incipient new species. It all depends on the definition of a species, which is an artificial and still controversial human concept. Where exactly does one draw the dividing line? Take the case of the Lynx - until recently, the Eurasian, Spanish, and Canadian lynx were considered to be subspecies, now they are defined as different species. In another 20 years, maybe they will be subspecies again.

Wildcats are probably most often seen in museums - although there were a pair at Edinburgh zoo a few years ago. The Scottish Wildcat subspecies was defined in 1907 by the British Museum; the chosen type specimen being an animal killed at Drumnadrochit on the shores of Loch Ness in 1904. Writing in 'Animals & Men' (1994) Jan Williams pointed out that "from this point the species 'evolved' by unnatural selection - gamekeepers supplied Wildcats to museums and were paid only for the ones which resembled the type specimen'.

There seems to be considerable doubt whether the Scottish wildcat still exists as a true (sub)species anymore. Recent genetic and immunological studies have suggested extensive cross breeding with feral cats. Wildcats are protected under the law, hybrids are not. These scientific studies unfortunately mean that the Scottish Wildcat, as a hybrid, or even as a suspected hybrid ('not proven'), is no longer a protected species in Scotland.

Give the Kellas cats time and space to evolve on their own without further crosses to either the wildcat and feral cats, and they could become firmly established as a new species in just a few generations. Perhaps they already have! That's evolution in action. It's not necessarily a long process, species can evolve in leaps and bounds or remain almost unchanged depending on environmental pressures and the gene pools.

There are those who believe that the wildcat is not extinct in England, and that the Scottish and English wildcats were, if not different species, certainly distinct subspecies. Kellas cats, or an equivalent, may be living in England too.

To sum up, in Scotland at least, many 'black panther' sightings may actually be sightings of a Kellas Cat. Whether these cats are just hybrids/cross-breeds or members of a new species depends merely on human perceptions.

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